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He died of acute renal failure in 2007 at the age of 69.
The majority of VADs on the market today are somewhat bulky.
The type of ventricular assistance device applied depends upon the type of underlying heart disease, and upon the pulmonary arterial-resistance, which determines the workload of the right ventricle.
The left-ventricle assistance device (LVAD) is the most common device applied to a defective heart (as it is sufficient in most cases -the right side of the heart is then often already able to make use of the heavily increased blood flow-), but when the pulmonary arterial-resistance is high, then an (additional) right-ventricle assistance device (RVAD) might be necessary to resolve the problem of cardiac circulation.
These devices are commonly referred to as first generation VADs.
More recent work has concentrated on continuous flow pumps, which can be roughly categorized as either centrifugal pumps or axial flow impeller driven pumps.
Inflating the cuff contracts the aorta and deflating the cuff allows the aorta to expand—in effect the aorta becomes a second left ventricle.
Normally, the long-term VAD is used as a bridge to transplantation (BTT)—keeping the patient alive, and in reasonably good condition, and able to await the heart transplant outside of the hospital.
This approach involves a return to a pulsatile flow.
Peter Houghton was the longest surviving recipient of a VAD for permanent use.
In this instance, the patient shall not undergo a heart transplantion and the VAD is what the patient will use for the remainder of his life.), the volume occupied by blood varies during the pumping cycle.
If the pump is contained inside the body then a vent tube to the outside air is required.